This Solid State SoftwareTM Command Module is designed to be used with the Texas Instruments Home Computer. Its preprogrammed solid-state memory
expands the power, versatility, and capability of your Home Computer.
Copyright © 1981 Texas Instruments Incorporated
Command Module program and data base contents
copyright © 1981 Scott, Foresman and Company.
See important warranty information at back of book.
Note to Parents
Children need strong math skills to solve today's and tomorrow's problems. The Addition and Subtraction 2 Solid State Software™ Command Module provides the fundamentals that can help your child meet these challenges.
Building on the skills introduced in Addition and Subtraction 1, the Addition and Subtraction 2 module was developed by the staff of Scott, Foresman and Company in cooperation with the Texas Instruments Learning Center. The activities are designed not only to challenge your child with colorful, interesting practices, but also to present the concepts of addition and subtraction in a dynamic, exciting way. Each instructional activity begins with a tutorial segment that demonstrates
the concept, followed by the option of continuing the tutorial exercises or progressing to the practice drills. This method allows children to gain confidence and proceed at their own self-determined paces.
The module contains nine addition and subtraction activities.
- COUNTING TO 10 begins the module with a review of the counting numbers 0 (zero) to 10.
- NUMBERS FROM 10 TO 18 provides an introduction to the counting numbers 10 to 18.
- ADDITION FACTS explains addition in the horizontal format.
- ADD ANOTHER WAY provides your child with a smooth and logical transition into vertical addition problems.
- ADD THREE NUMBERS uses number bars to explain the horizontal addition of three numbers.
- ADD IN A COLUMN changes the three-addend horizontal problem to the vertical format.
- SUBTRACTION FACTS demonstrates subtracting a single-digit number from a double-digit number.
- SUBTRACT ANOTHER WAY shows your child the subtraction process in the vertical structure.
- REVIEW THE FACTS gives your child an opportunity to practice all of the skills taught in the module. Also included in this activity is an EXTRA FOR EXPERTS for the child who answers 20 or more review problems correctly.
The Addition and Subtraction 2 module advances your child to more difficult drills according to the number of correct responses given in each activity. The computer automatically advances to the next activity if your child answers 80 percent of the drill problems correctly. If less than 60 percent of the problems are answered correctly, the computer returns to the appropriate activity, providing your child with more practice. This automation helps alleviate anxieties caused by consistently incorrect responses, making the learning of mathematical skills a pleasurable and rewarding experience.
With this module, Texas Instruments continues its tradition of applying innovative Solid State Speech TM technology to educational activities. Addition and Subtraction 2 is designed to work with or without the Texas Instruments Solid State SpeechTM Synthesizer (sold separately). However, the Speech Synthesizer must be attached to activate the voice of the computer. The computer's voice then gives directions, reads the equations, and encourages your child to "Try again" when he or she gives an incorrect answer. The addition of speech strengthens the learning process since your child can hear, as well as see, the correct answers.
Your Child and the Computer
The Texas Instruments Home Computer is a rugged, durable device designed for easy use and care. Teach your child to give the computer the same good care and respect he or she would give a television set, record player, radio, or any piece of electronic equipment:
- Keep snacks and beverages away from the console.
- Don't hammer on the keyboard or place heavy objects on it.
- Don't touch the module contacts. These are recessed in the module to help prevent accidental soiling and/or damage.
The letters and numbers on the keyboard are arranged in the same order found on standard typewriter keyboards. If your child is not familiar with a typewriter or has not used your Home Computer before, take a few minutes to acquaint him or her with the keyboard. Point out the row of number keys at the top and the rows of letter keys below. Show your child how to insert the module and how to select the activities. This brief "tour" of the Computer will help reinforce the correct procedures for your child and instill confidence as he or she starts out in a new world of computers.
Today, computers are involved in almost every aspect of life. Working with this module can help your child become familiar with computers and their operation. Since computer-aided instruction is more common in the classroom every year, this knowledge can give your child an important advantage.
After the Addition and Subtraction 2 title screen appears, the computer automatically displays a selection list of the nine activities included in the module.
Your child presses the number corresponding to the activity he or she wants to try. For this sample activity, press 3 for Addition Facts. (We'll assume that the Speech Synthesizer is attached for this example.)
After the activity title screen, the tutorial segment begins. Two sets of objects in two different colors appear on a divided display. Identifying numbers are printed below each group.
Next, the objects from the groups move up, forming a tens number bar in the middle of the display. Then, as the tens bar and the number 10 appear at the top of the screen, the open addition sentence forms at the bottom.
The number 10 now travels to the right across the top of the display, and then moves down into the answer block.
The second example, when the sum of the addends is greater than 10, follows automatically. The objects move up to form the number bar. Next, the tens bar, the number 10, the corresponding units bar, and that number are displayed. The number 10 then moves across and adds the units to itself, and the total moves down into the answer block.
The next display asks your child if he or she would like to see another example. If your child wants another example, press 1 for "Yes." If he or she is ready to go to the drill, press 2 for "No." For now, press 2. Then press BEGIN to leave the drill and return to the activity selection list.
The "cursor" is displayed as a white box with a flashing red border. It prompts your child to respond. When the cursor is flashing, you may answer a problem or change displays.
Each time your child gives a correct answer on the first or second try, the computer responds with one of three visual rewards accompanied by a short tune. Also, in Activity 9 a gold star appears on the screen each time your child answers a set of problems correctly. These rewards reinforce correct answers and help motivate your child to continue.
Special care has been taken to make the response to incorrect answers low-key and non-intimidating. If your child presses an incorrect answer, a red "X" appears over the response, and an "uh-oh" sound tells your child that he or she has selected an incorrect response. Then, the incorrect response and the "X" erase. Next, the computer tells your child to "Try again" and the cursor flashes again on the display. If the second response is correct, your child gets the visual and musical
reward for that activity. If the second response is incorrect, a red "X" appears over the response and the computer supplies the correct answer.
In Activities 1 and 2, your child must identify each number correctly before advancing to the next activity. If, in Activities 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8, two consecutive errors are made, the module assists your child with a visual example of the problem. If, in Activity 4, two consecutive errors are made on a vertical problem, that problem appears in the horizontal format. The computer supplies the answer if an incorrect response is given in the horizontal format. Activity 9 allows only one try, with the computer supplying the correct answer if an incorrect response is given.
The computer says and displays "Your turn" at the beginning of each drill activity. If no response is given in ten seconds, the computer gives a short beep and says "Your turn." After five more seconds, the computer beeps again and says "What is the number?" If there is still no response, the computer automatically provides more tutorial review. If the Speech Synthesizer is not attached, the computer gives a short beep and displays either "Your turn" or "What is the number?"
Addition and Subtraction 2 Activities
The nine activities in the Addition and Subtraction 2 module are designed to strengthen your child's addition and subtraction skills. Activities 1 through 8 begin with a tutorial routine, followed by a drill. Each tutorial example, except in Activity 1, gives your child the option of viewing more or progressing to the drill. (Activity 1 advances to the drill automatically.) We suggest that you read through this section completely so that you can help your child select the appropriate starting activity.
Activity 1: Counting to 10
Activity 1: Counting to 10 This activity reviews the counting skills of numbers 0 (zero) to 10. In the first section, a line bar with stacks of boxes representing the numbers 0 (zero) to 5 appears on the display. The computer counts the boxes, displays the number, and then erases the numbers. When the red cursor flashes, your child is asked to press the number key corresponding to the number of bars above the cursor. Your child must correctly recognize the numbers 0 (zero) to 5 before the module advances to the second section of this activity. The same format is presented in this section, but this time the line bar displays the numbers 6 through 10. Again, your child must correctly recognize these numbers before the module advances to the next activity.
Activity 2: Numbers from 10 to 18
Activity 2 introduces the concept of grouping numbers into tens. To achieve a number greater than 10, one group of 10 is added to a group of units. Bars or objects appear on the display. As they move together (bringing the tens and units together), the newly formed number and the corresponding word are displayed. The drill asks your child to identify the number of bars or objects that appear on the display.
Activity 3: Addition Facts
Addition Facts presents two sets of objects with corresponding numbers under each group. The objects move upward and form a number bar in the middle of the display. As the objects reappear in their original position on the display, corresponding numbers also appear and form an addition sentence. The signs " +" and " =" and the answer are displayed to complete the sentence. With the help of bars or objects, the drill asks your child to complete the addition sentence.
Activity 4: Add Another Way
This activity moves the horizontal addition sentence to form the vertical sentence. All the problems in the drill are presented in the vertical format. Your child is asked to type the correct answer to the problems.
Activity 5: Add Three Numbers
Add Three Numbers extends the concept of horizontal addition to include three numbers. It also introduces the associative property of addition: (3 + 5) + 4 = 3 + (5 + 4). To help your child recognize this property, a box is drawn around the combined addends in the addition sentence. The drill asks your child to enter the sum of the three numbers.
Activity 6: Add in a Column
Activity 6 continues the skill of adding three numbers by presenting the numbers in a column. The boxes drawn around the combined numbers and objects visually reinforce the associative property of addition in the vertical format. The exercises in the drill appear in this format. The correct answer is to be entered under the three numbers.
Activity 7: Subtraction Facts
This activity subtracts a single-digit number from a double-digit number with the visual assistance of "X-ing" out train engines. Ten to 18 train engines appear on the display. A random number of train engines are "X-ed" out and then disappear. Next, the corresponding horizontal subtraction sentence appears. The drill displays a subtraction sentence and asks your child to complete it with the correct answer. If an incorrect response is given, train engines appear and are "X-ed" out to assist your child with the next response.
Activity 8: Subtract Another Way
Subtract Another Way demonstrates the concept of taking a smaller number from a larger one by crossing out a number of bars from a large group of bars and then having them disappear. All the problems in the drill appear in the vertical format. If an incorrect answer is given, appropriate counting bars appear to assist your child with the second response.
Activity 9: Review the Facts
The review presents a variety of 24 problems, utilizing the skills represented in the module. Only one try is allowed, with an incorrect response resulting in a computer-supplied answer. For the child who answers 20 or more of the problems correctly, the module automatically provides an EXTRA FOR EXPERTS. This ten-problem activity displays one of the addends and the sum of the addition problem. Your child is asked to fill in the missing addend.